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Jlink: Cybelink's Framework, by Mani Malarvannan

When Sun released J2EE to capture the growing e-business market, it changed Java from a language to an enterprise platform.

Several key players such as BEA and Oracle have pledged their support and endorse J2EE standards in their application server products. Several other companies are either already using the Java application server or are thinking of using it in the near future. These companies are scrambling to come up with a scalable enterprise architecture that works with existing technology and also grows with future changes. However, developing scalable and adaptable enterprise architecture is a difficult and time-consuming task. Several software-engineering principles such as OO methodology and software patterns need to be used when constructing the enterprise architecture so it will last.

To solve this Cybelink created Jlink, a vendor-neutral framework based on Sun's J2EE Blueprint recommendations and guidelines. Architected at a high-level, Jlink can be easily adapted to work with any vendor-specific, Java-based application server such as WebLogic and WebSphere. In this three-part series we'll discuss the Jlink framework; in Part 1 we'll discuss the Servlet/JSP portion of Jlink and describe the problems associated with the Servlet/JSP technology. In Part 2 we'll describe the Jlink architecture and how it solves the Servlet/JSP problems. In Part 3 we'll describe the workings of Jlink and provide an example.

Web Programming Model and Servlet/JSP Container
Before going into the details of Jlink, we'll discuss the Web programming model and explore how the Servlet/JSP container supports it. Any Servlet/JSP-based Web application can be modeled using the following simple actions: a user submits a request using a Web browser and clicking a button or a URL link. The HTTP request first goes to the Web server and if it's plain HTML, it sends the HTML page to the browser. If the request needs to execute a Servlet/JSP, the Web server passes the request to the Servlet/JSP container, which processes the request by invoking the appropriate Servlet/JSP and sending a response back to the browser. The Servlet/JSP might process the request itself or send it to a JavaBean or EJB, extract the result, and transfer it to the browser via the Web server.

J2EE defines a Web container as a place where servlets and JSPs live, and it acts as a bridge between the client and EJB containers. The communication between the Web and EJB containers is carried out by JavaBean components. A crucial aspect of Web development is to architect the middle tier, which processes the HTTP request and sends the results back to the browser. Jlink provides an easy mechanism to handle HTTP requests from the browser and send them to the appropriate JavaBean component, which processes the results and sends them back to the browser. An HTTP request can be processed in one of the following ways:

  1. Within Servlet/JSP components
  2. Within JavaBean components
  3. Accessing the EJB business components using local calls or through RMI/IIOP
  4. Accessing the Enterprise Information System tier (EIS) using a connector
  5. Accessing databases using JDBC
This Jlink currently supports Options 1 and 2 and has been architected in such a way that future supports for Options 3, 4, and 5 can be integrated into it.

Servlet/JSP Container Runtime Environment
Before going into the details of our Jlink architecture, we'll discuss the Servlet and JSP working model in detail. Once we understand the inner workings of that, we can discuss the Jlink architecture.

When an HTTP request with a Servlet/JSP comes from a browser, the Web server routes the request to the Servlet/JSP container (see Figure 1). If the HTTP request comes for the first time, the Servlet/JSP container compiles the Servlet (in the case of JSP, it's converted into a Servlet) and processes the HTTP request by creating the following objects:

Figure 1
  • javax.servlet.ServletContext
  • javax.servlet.HttpRequest
  • javax.servlet.HttpResponse
  • javax.servlet.http.HttpSession
Conversely the second time an HTTP request comes for the same Servlet/JSP from the same browser, the container creates only the following objects:
  • javax.servlet.HttpRequest
  • javax.servlet.HttpResponse
The second time an HTTP request comes for the same Servlet/JSP but from a different browser, the container creates only the following objects:
  • javax.servlet.HttpRequest
  • javax.servlet.HttpResponse
  • javax.servlet.http.HttpSession

The Servlet/JSP container creates one javax.servlet.ServletContext object per Web application. This object provides application-wide services for all Servlet/JSPs within that Web application. The Servlet/JSP container creates one javax.servlet.HttpSession object for each browser connection. Each HttpSession object provides services to the corresponding browser connection and is responsible for maintaining the individual browser information. Each time an HTTP request comes from a browser that contains a Servlet/JSP, the container creates new javax.servlet.HttpRequest and javax.servlet.HttpResponse objects. The HttpServletRequest provides browser request information to a Servlet/JSP. It also provides data, including parameter names and values, that's set in the browser. The Servlet/JSP uses the HttpResponse object to send responses back to the browser.

Another important concept of the Servlet/JSP container is that when multiple HTTP requests from different browsers come to a Servlet/JSP, the container handles it by creating a thread for each request. This significantly increases the performance of the Web application. However, this feature also creates a problem that will be addressed in the next section.

Life Cycle of the Objects
In the previous section we discussed the Servlet/JSP container's runtime environment. In this section we'll look at the life cycle of the HttpSession, HttpRequest, and HttpResponse objects that make the runtime environment. The ServletContext object exists as long as the Web application is active in the Servlet/JSP container. When the Web application is either closed or restarted, the corresponding ServletContext object becomes a potential candidate for garbage collection by the Java virtual machine.

The HttpSession object that's created for each browser connection remains within the Servlet/JSP container as long as the session is active. When the session is inactive for a specific time period, the Servlet/JSP container removes that object and makes it a potential candidate for garbage collection.

When the Servlet/JSP container receives a new HTTP request from the browser, it removes the references to the old HttpRequest and HttpResponse objects and creates new ones.

The HTTP is a stateless protocol, that is, it doesn't maintain the state of the HTTP requests from the browser. Each time a new HTTP request comes from the browser, it doesn't maintain the state (session data) of the previous HTTP request. In most Web applications it's always necessary to maintain the user session so that content is sent to the correct browser. If not, the user must log in each and every time, not an acceptable solution. By creating the HttpSession, HttpRequest, and HttpResponse objects at the appropriate times, the Servlet/JSP container provides a solution to the above problem. However, this solution is primitive and has its own problems. We need to extend this concept so we can have a scalable, maintainable, and adaptable architecture.

Session Data Storage
Session data can be stored at the client- or server-side. In the client-side approach we can use the following techniques: cookies, URL rewriting, and hidden fields. In the server-side approach we can store the session data in a persistence store that can be retrieved for later use.

Client-Side Cookies
We can use client-side cookies to store all the session data with the client ID. Once the session data has been written, it can be retrieved later using this ID. By converting all the session data into a string, it's possible to store an entire session data into a cookie. Listing 1 shows how you can use, store, and retrieve cookies.

Once the cookie has been written, you can retrieve it from an HttpResponse object using getCookie(). Cookies are easy to implement but they have several limitations: a cookie can only store up to 4K of text, and there are restrictions on the number of cookies that can be stored in a given domain.

Client-Side HTML Hidden Fields
Another approach to preserving session data is using "hidden fields," available in HTML INPUT tags. The stored session data can be retrieved using the HttpRequest class that's defined by the getParameter() method. Although this approach is easy to use and implement, it has its own problems - we can store only string types to the hidden fields, and we can't store other objects. Another major problem with this approach is that the performance of the Web site decreases significantly. First, a request comes from a browser, you process that request, store the result in the hidden fields, and send that HTML page back to the browser for additional user requests. Next, a request comes from the same user, you process the first request as well as the second one, and send the result back to HTML. With this approach you end up processing the same data again and again so it's not suitable for large Web sites.

Client-Side URL Rewriting
Generally this technique is used when the user disables the cookies in the browser. You append a client ID as a response parameter to all URLs that are served by the Web server. This is accomplished by using the encodeURL() method defined in the HttpServletResponse class. One problem with this approach is that every URL on every page must be rewritten dynamically in order to embed the client ID in every request. Listing 2 provides an example of URL rewriting. In it the itemID is used as a client ID that identifies the user in case the browser is disabled by the cookies. Note: You need to generate these URLs for each and every link in all your pages, which is tedious and difficult to maintain.

Another problem with this approach is security. If we store all the session data in the client, with little effort anyone can access that data. One way to solve the problem is to encrypt the session data before storing it on the client-side. However, even if you encrypt the session data it's still not a good practice to store sensitive business data at the client-side.

Server-Side Persistence Approach
In this approach we use the client-side to store only the client ID (using cookies or hidden fields); the session data associated with this ID is stored in the server. When the cookies are turned off in the browser, we can use URL rewriting to send the client ID to the browser. Using the method encodeURL() that's defined in the HttpResponse class solves all the problems mentioned earlier in the client-side approach.

Problems with the Servlet/JSP Container Programming Model
In this section we'll explore the inherent problems associated with the Servlet/JSP programming model. As explained earlier, it's a complex task when multiple HTTP requests come for the same Servlet/JSP. The Servlet/JSP container creates a new thread to handle each request. So all the threads share the same instance variables in the Servlet/JSP. This makes it impossible to store the different client information in the instance variables in the Servlet/JSP. The only option is to use the HttpSession object to store the instance variables, which can be retrieved or removed as necessary. But adding and removing instance variables to the HttpSession object from any Servlet/JSP will create unmanageable spaghetti code. Similarly, accessing the HttpRequest and HttpResponse objects directly from the Servlet/JSP will also create unmanageable code. So we need a mechanism that helps us use the HttpSession, HttpServletRequest, and HttpResponse objects in a more controlled and manageable way.

When developing Web applications, map the browser requests to the appropriate Servlet/JSP. The easiest way to map the browser actions to the back-end Servlet/JSP is to use a query parameter within the HTML forms or URL links and have an if-then-else statement to find the appropriate Servlet/JSP. Although this approach is simple, it creates a performance nightmare for Servlet/JSP developers. If we have to support new Servlet/JSPs, we need to change the source code; this leads us to the development life cycle of compile, test, debug, and deploy.

Another significant problem with developing Web applications is managing the changes in Web resources such as HTML, Servlet, and JSP. During development and production time, these resources change names, directories, paths, and more. If we hard-code these names and paths in our programs, for each and every change we have to go through the compile, debug, test, and deploy cycles. An alternative is to store the names and paths in a text file and access them from the programs. If there's any change in the Web resources, we can edit the text file and simply restart the Web application.

High-Traffic Web Sites
The standard JSDK implementation stores the HttpSession object in the memory of the JVM where it was created so an HttpSession can be retrieved efficiently. Though this approach works for smaller Web sites or sites that don't need session information from one request to another, this approach doesn't scale well in larger, high-traffic e-business sites.

In those sites where multiple Web servers are used to serve Web pages, a load balancer (either hardware or software) is used to distribute the HTTP traffic to different Web servers. When the load balancer assigns a Web server to a particular HTTP request that comes from a browser, all subsequent requests from that browser are assigned to the same Web server. The load balancer accomplishes this by examining the IP address of the incoming packets and assigning a particular Web server to that packet, as well as assigning the same Web server to all the packets that have the same IP address. This method of assigning the packets with the same IP address to the same Web server is called server affinity. Server affinity may not be guaranteed because many companies now assign random IP addresses to the outgoing packets. In this case the load balancer can't assign the same Web server to packets that come from the same browser. If we use the reference implementation of JSDK, we'll run into problems maintaining the HttpSession objects. The reference implementation of JSDK maintains the HttpSession object in the memory of the JVM in which it was created. When the load balancer assigns the packets from the same browser to different Web servers, the HttpSession object created for the first packet is lost to subsequent packets. To avoid this problem we need to store the HttpSession object in the persistence store, which must be accessible to all Web servers, so the right HttpSession object can be retrieved using the session ID stored in the cookie.

In Part 1 we described the inherent problems associated with J2EE's Servlet/JSP container and how they affect the creation of enterprise-wide, scalable Web architecture. In Part 2, we'll look at Jlink's architecture and how it solves these problems.


  1. Sun's J2EE Blueprint: http://java.sun.com/j2ee/blueprints
  2. Buschmann, F., et al. (1996). Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture. John Wiley & Sons.
  3. Fields, D.K., and Kolb, M.A. (2000). Web Development with JavaServer Pages. Manning Publications.
  4. Servlet/JSP API: http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/2.2/javadoc/index.html

Author Bio
Mani Malarvannan is CEO and cofounder of Cybelink (www.cybelink.com), a Minnesota-based company that specializes in e-business consulting and training. Mani has several years of OO analysis and design experience and has been working in Internet and Java technologies since their inception. He holds BS and MS degrees in computer science.
[email protected]


Listing 1

//Setting Cookies
package test;
import javax.servlet.*;
public class CookieSetter(HttpServletResponse resp, String sessionData){
     //Client Id is "CybelinkCookie"
     Cookie coo=new Cookie("CybelinkCookie", sessionData);
     coo.setMaxAge(24*60*60) //One day

//Retrieving Cookies
package test;
import javax.servlet.*;
public class CookieRetriever(HttpServletRequest req, String sessionData){
     Cookie[] cookies=req.getCookies();
      Cookie found=null
     if(cookies != null){
     for(int i=0; i<cookies.length ; ++i){

Listing 2

import javax.servlet.*;
import javax.servlet.http.*;

import java.io.*;

public class ItemsCatalogServlet extends HttpServlet {

         public void doGet (HttpServletRequest req,
                            HttpServletResponse resp)
    throws ServletException, IOException{
    //....get ShoppingCart
             Items[] items = shoppingCart.getItems();
             for(int i=0; i < items.length; i++) {
out.println("<a href=\"" 
+response.encodeURL("/servlet/items?bookId=" +bookId)+
                "\"> <strong>" + items[i].getName() + "</strong></a></td>");


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